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10 Best Books that represent respect for diversity

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{articles|100|campaign}{pixabay|100|campaign}Untitled (1931) – Fred Krafolfer (1903-1968)
Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon, Portugal

Material: Oil on canvas
Collection: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Modern Collection
Inv.: 83P1241

EXHIBITION

Heimo Zobernig e a Colecção do Centro de Arte Moderna da Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
CAM/FCG
Curadoria: Jürgen Bock
11 de Fevereiro de 2009 a 31 de Agosto
Centro de Arte Moderna
Exposição realizada em parceria com a Tate St. Ives. Inclui obras da colecção da Tate de St. Ives, do Centro de Arte Moderna e do artista Heimo Zobernig. De 24 de Maio a 31 de Agosto de 2009 estiveram expostas apenas as obras do CAM escolhidas pelo artista.

BIOGRAPHY (I)

Fred Kradolfer, c. 1939
Nascimento: 1903
Origin: Suiça (Zurique)
Morte: 1968 (65 anos)
Lisboa
NacionalidadeSuíço
Ocupação: Pintor, ilustrador, artista gráfico
Fred Kradolfer (Zurique, 12 de junho de 1903 — Lisboa, 16 de julho de 1968), foi um pintor, ilustrador, artista gráfico e decorador de origem suíça.

Figura chave na introdução das linguagens gráficas modernas em Portugal na década de 1920, Fred Kradolfer é considerado um "protagonista incontornável da história do design português".

VIDA / OBRA

Iniciou sua vida acadêmica estudando ourivesaria na Escola de Artes Aplicadas de Zurique. Posteriormente, foi para a Alemanha estudar Artes Gráficas na Escola de Belas Artes de Berlim e arquitetura na Academia de Munique (não chegou a finalizar este último curso).

No entanto, antes de se mudar da sua cidade natal, foi chamado para pintar grandes painéis para a Catedral de Zurique. No período seguinte passou por diversas cidades europeias, como Roterdão, Bruxelas e Paris, onde trabalhou na decoração de montras de estabelecimentos comerciais. Até que, em 1 de agosto de 1924, estabeleceu-se em Portugal, mas sem nunca deixar de acompanhar atentamente a evolução das artes gráficas suiças.

Com conhecimentos adquiridos fora de Portugal, foi desde cedo uma referência para todos os que se empenhavam na modernização das linguagens das artes gráficas. Fred Kradolfer "é um dos plásticos que mais arejaram a atmosfera artística do nosso país". "Portador de uma diversificada formação académica, [ele] trouxe os conhecimentos, experiência e exemplos que permitiram a divulgação da linguagem moderna na comunicação gráfica".

A sua ação renovadora a nível da publicidade é determinante. "Alternativa gráfica à exploração do lado narrativo e anedótico da mensagem, opõem-lhe a sua consciência de síntese, e a própria noção de grafismo que ela contém". Irá procurar uma maior eficácia da comunicação através da supressão de elementos secundários ou acessórios, de uma estilização poderosa das imagens e de uma sugestiva articulação entre a imagem e a palavra.

Artista multifacetado, dedicou-se ao longo dos anos a diversas atividades artísticas, das artes gráficas (veja-se, por exemplo, o seu cartaz turístico Portugal – Praia de Espinho, 1931) ao vitral, à cerâmica, aos anúncios luminosos, sem esquecer a sua importante ação como decorador. Colaborou nos primeiros ateliers de design e publicidade desenhando materiais gráficos, montras e stands (Atelier Arta, de Jorge Barradas; ETP – Estúdio Técnico de Publicidade, de José Rocha).

Em 1927, passa a assinar suas primeiras montras em Lisboa, sob a encomenda do Instituto Pasteur. Nos anos seguintes, colaborou com o Atelier Arta e o Atelier Publicitas desenhando projetos gráficos, montras e desenvolvendo stands para marcas como Philips, Nestlé, Instituto Pasteur, Renaul e diversas outras.

Como pintor participou em diversas mostras coletivas, nomeadamente em Salões da Sociedade Nacional de Belas Artes (1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1960), no I Salão de Independentes (SNBA, 1930), na Exposição de Artistas Ilustradores Modernos, (S.P.N., 1943), na II Exposição de Artes Plásticas da Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian (Lisboa, 1961), etc.

Trabalhou como decorador no pavilhão de Portugal na Exposição Internacional e Colonial de Vincennes, Paris, 1930-31.

Entre 1937 e 1939 integrou, juntamente com Bernardo Marques, Carlos Botelho, Emmerico Nunes, Thomaz de Mello, Paulo Ferreira e José Rocha, a equipe de decoradores do S.P.N. (Secretariado de Propaganda Nacional) encarregues da realização dos pavilhões de Portugal nas seguintes exposições internacionais: Exposição Internacional de Artes e Técnicas, Paris, 1937; Feira Mundial de Nova Iorque, 1939; Exposição Internacional de S. Francisco, 1939.

Em 1940 integrou a equipa de decoradores da Exposição do Mundo Português e, nesse mesmo ano, foi agraciado com as insígnias de Oficial da Ordem Militar de Sant’Iago da Espada.

SOURCE: pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Kradolfer

BIOGRAPHY (II)

FRED KRADOLFER: SWISS MODERNISM IN PORTUGAL

Born in Zürich on 12 June 1903, Kradolfer’s first name was Fritz. He studied Goldsmithing at the Zürich Kunstgewerbeschule (Zürich School of Applied Arts) and then attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München (Munich Academy of Fine Arts), after which he led an errant life, living in several European cities, including Rotterdam, Brussels and Paris, where he worked as a window dresser for commercial establishments. Attracted by the sunny climate, he eventually moved to Portugal on 1 August 1924. It is said that Kradolfer coined the term Costa do Sol (the Sun Coast). When he arrived in Portugal, not yet able to speak Portuguese, he saw the Cascais coastline and exclaimed ‘Voilá! C’est la Côte du Soleil!’. He worked with Artur Soares and Jorge Barradas’ Atelier Arta and was hired as a decorator and graphic artist by the Pasteur Institute in Lisbon. He began working on an extensive series of advertisements for the Bertrand Brothers’ workshop which appeared in the magazine Ilustração. In 1928 he took part in the Medical-Surgical Industrial Exhibition organised by the Pasteur Institute with an eye-catching art-deco style stand. In late 1929, he designed the cover of the first issue of Ilustração to appear in January of the following year. In 1930 he took part in the First Independents’ Salon and, on behalf of Phillips, he worked on the Light and Electricity Applied to the Home Exhibition at the SNBA. Together with Bernardo Marques, he created sets for Chianca de Garcia’s silent film Ver e Amar! In 1931, he designed the poster and decor for the Portuguese Colonial Exhibition in Paris, the tourism poster Portugal — Espinho Beach, and the cover of the book Feira de Amostras for the National Advertising Company. In 1932 he designed the Portuguese Industrial Exhibition, the cover of the first issue of Fama magazine, the cover of the book Páscoa Feliz by José Rodrigues Miguéis, which was published by Edições Alfa, and several covers for books by António Botto, published by Edições Paulo Guedes. He exhibited his work at the SNBA in the same year and returned there to stage further exhibitions in 1933, 1934, 1935 and 1960. In April 1933, at the Exhibition of Childhood, Kradolfer created a stand for Nestlé which was judged to be the best in the competition. In 1935, he decorated the pavilions of the Lisbon Festivals and the cover of the first issue of the magazine Actualidade Colonial for Editorial Cosmos. In 1936 he decorated the entrance hall of the Year X of the National Revolution Exhibition and the Imperium Tea Salon, the interior of which was designed by Raúl Tojal. Also in 1936, José Rocha founded the ETP (Technical Advertising Studio), which brought together a group of artists that included Maria Keil, Bernardo Marques, Ofélia Marques, Carlos Rocha, TOM, Botelho, Stuart and Kradolfer, many of whom had worked together at the SPN. In 1937 he oversaw the interior decoration of the Historical Exhibition of Occupation in the Nineteenth Century. In Paris, together with Bernardo Marques, he created the sets for a folk show prepared by António Ferro at the Théatre des Champs-Élysées. Together with Bernardo Marques, José Rocha, Carlos Botelho, Thomaz de Mello and Emmérico Nunes, he was a member of the team responsible for the decoration and communication strategy at the International Paris Exhibition, at which the Portugal Pavilion was awarded the Grand-Prix. In 1939, he worked on exhibitions in New York and San Fran- cisco, began a long collaboration with Editorial Inquérito, producing covers for several collections, and joined the collective of painters and decorators working at the Portuguese World Exhibition in 1940.
Fred Kradolfer, 1903-1968, Lisboa

In 1941, in the wake of the exhibition, he received the Medal of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword together with the other artists who took part. In 1942, the ETP, led by José Rocha and Fred Kradolfer, made use of the hoardings around building sites, covering them with painted, illuminated posters in relief. In 1943 he designed the exhibition and poster for the Swiss Exhibition at the Higher Technical Institute. He also exhibited work at the First Exhibition of Modern Illustrators organised by the SNI. In 1944, together with the ubiquitous Bernardo Marques, Carlos Botelho, José Rocha, and also José Luís Brandão, he decorated the stands for the National Wine Council, the Portuguese Institute of Canned Fish and the National Cork Council, which were present at the Feira Popular. He also created a large number of labels, advertising posters and window displays for these institutions and began working with the Portugália publishing house, illustrating covers for the collection Os romances sensations. In 1945, he produced the covers for issues four and ten of the magazine Ver e Crer. In 1947 he staged his first solo exhibition, for which around eighteen works were shown at Galeria Instanta on Rua Nova do Almada. In 1949, he designed the poster for the Portuguese Industries Fair. In 1952, he worked on the decoration of the Cine-Teatro Monumental, which was designed by Rodrigues de Lima and, on behalf of the ETP, he designed posters, advertising and packaging for the campaign How to Cook Canned Portuguese Sardines, which was organized by the National Fish Institute. In 1955 he rediscovered his interest in tiles, particularly wainscoting with popular motifs. Between 1955 and 1957 he created two panels for the Hotel Infante Santo and in the latter year, he also made several ceramic plates which bore the names of trawlers based in Boca do Inferno in Cascais. He was responsible for all of the interior decoration of the Soponata headquarters on Rua do Açúcar in Lisbon and for tiling the baptistery, triumphal arch and sidewalls of the chapel of the Aquartelamento de Santa Margarida, for which he also decorated the stained-glass windows and altar panels with representations of Saint Margaret. He created the covers for the programmes of the Lisbon Festivals in 1955 and 1958 and in the latter year he worked on the Portugal Pavilion at the Brussels International Exhibition. In 1962 he designed the Europa stamp collection, for which he created an illustration of a honeycomb with nineteen holes, symbolizing the member countries of the CEPT. Kradolfer also contributed to the development of tapestry, creating gouache boards for Manufactura de Portalegre and participating in the First International Tapestry Biennale of Lausanne. In the early 1960s, Lisbon Town Council commissioned him to design the tiled panels for Lisbon’s look-out points, which were created by the Viúva Lamego Factory. He completed the panels for São Pedro de Alcântara (1962), Castelo de São Jorge, Nossa Senhora do Monte (1963) and Monte Agudo (1965). In 1965, he created maquettes of tiles for the Cinema Europa and the façade of the Vice-Chancellor’s building of the University of Lisbon. He also designed the covers of issues 67 to 71 of the Revista Municipal for Lisbon Town Council. At the Casino Estoril in 1966, he covered the bottom of the indoor water mirror in the Jardim de Inverno and created five ceramic panels for the Hotel Estoril-Sol. He exhibited the tapestry work Pinheiros at the exhibition Fifty Years of Portalegre Tapestry, organized by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. In June 1968, he won the Diário de Notícias prize on what was the first occasion that it had been awarded to an artist working in the graphic arts. In the same month, he also staged two exhibitions: the first, entitled Coisas do Mar, took place at the SNI salons in Palácio Foz while the second, organized by Artur Bual, was held at the Galeria Archote. He died on 16 July 1968 at the age of sixty-five.

Fred Kradolfer (Zurich 1903/Lisbon 1968) arrived in Portugal, at the age of twenty-one, in August 1924 after taking several, doubtless formative, trips around central and northern Europe.

The Switzerland of his student years – he studied at the Zürich Kunstgewerbeschule (Zurich School of Applied Arts) and the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München (Munich Academy of Fine Arts) – was characterized by great richness and diversity in the field of graphic arts, assimilating influences from German, French and Italian cultures.

The great lithographic and typographic workshops – such as J. E. Wolfensberger AG in Zurich or Wassermann in Basel – had become established in a context marked by Jugendstil and reinvigorated in the second half of the 1910s by the influence of countless avant-garde movements. At the same time, new advertising and graphic art workshops were appearing, the most notable of which was Max Dalang AG, where some of the foremost designers of the Swiss modernist movement undertook internships in the 1910s and 1920s.

The academic world in Zürich, in which Kradolfer moved in the early 1920s, was also particularly significant, its key figures including Fritz Ehmcke, who represented the excellence of the lithographic tradition, and Ernst Keller, who introduced a new typographic language. Keller helped to renew and rationalise the language of advertising, introducing elements of genuinely modern graphic design, with attention being paid to grids, layout, lettering, and the use of colour etc. He became one of the main influences on Kradolfer, who, while in Portugal, always closely followed the work of several Swiss graphic artists.

The Lisbon that Kradolfer encountered was neither the cosmopolitan city of the Age of the Jazz Band (the title of a well-known book by António Ferro with an eye-catching cover by Bernardo Marques), nor the city of stereotyped worldliness seen in representations by António Soares and Bernardo Marques. In Portugal, where the lithographic tradition dominated and the main graphic artists were most remarkable illustrators who were nonetheless far from being graphic designers, the roles of lithographer and typographer were more clearly separated than they were in Switzerland. Good examples of the Portuguese tradition are provided by Emmérico Nunes’ advertising drawings for Vacuum or Gillette, which used the same formal structure as his humorous sketches: a title, the development of the story through the drawing, and the comment in the caption.

Kradolfer combined technical knowledge (which he doubtless extended during his time in Portugal) with communicative intuition and a significant degree of the cultivated graphic culture found in Plakatstil and in Swiss typographic modernism. If we look at the book covers that he created, we see how he established himself as a cover designer [the cover of Oh Chico… "Não sejas Azelhudo (1933)" is a good example] without, however, managing to stand out among the various excellent Portuguese cover designers working at the time, such as Bernardo Marques or Roberto Nobre. But if we look at his work in advertising, in more than one medium, and if we consider his use of letters (which were geometric and rarely serifed, and could take on an added expressiveness that gave them an image-like quality) in geometrizing design or creating a successful communicative arrangement (the way in which, with a minimum of elements, he construct- ed an elegant and functional graphical synthesis), then the extraordinary talent of this remarkable communication designer becomes apparent.

It is also through advertising design that Kradolfer’s modernism can best be understood: his poster for the Industrial School was inspired by the works of Beggarstaff in its use of collage and ‘drawing with scissors’, techniques which allowed him to construct abstract shapes and silhouettes; his work for Fiat 508 (1932) or for Oliva (1948) follow the principles of the Sachplakate (object poster) developed by the Swiss poster artists Stoecklin and Baumberger (involving the use of minimal elements, figurative realism and simplified lettering); his adverts for Nestlé (1929) and Shell (1929) are excellent art-deco compositions with their aerodynamic geometry, zigzagging elements and a certain decorative excess; and lastly, his advertising for the Portuguese Institute of Canned Fish offers a perfect synthesis of 1930s figurative modernism, incorporating Portuguese ethnographic elements and iconographic solutions which Paolo Ferreira would also use.

These qualities allowed the young Swiss not only to integrate but also to establish himself in Portugal. It was in 1927, in response to a commission from the Pasteur Institute, that the first shop windows designed by Kradolfer appeared.

Between 1927 and 1933, the year in which António Ferro set up the SPN (Office of National Propaganda) and Kradolfer joined a restricted team of graphic artists and window dressers working for the Office, Kradolfer worked intensively, collaborating with the Arta Studio and the Publicitas Studio, designing graphic materials, shop windows and stands for the Pasteur Institute, Philips, Nestlé, and several other clients, including Bertrand, Renault, and Shell. When Salazar came to power in 1932, the institutional framework of graphic design came to be inseparable from Duarte Pacheco’s ministry, the SPN, and the Higher Council for Fine Arts.

Public institutional commissions, which became more numerous in the early 1930s, encouraged the first design and advertising studios to be set up, including Artur Soares and Jorge Barradas’ Atelier Arta, Bernardo and Ofélia Marques and Sarah Afonso’s Atelier Íbis, José Rocha’s agency ETP and Manuel Rodrigues’ Estúdio MR.

Kradolfer moved between several of these studios and worked actively with Arta and later with the ETP.

The creation of the SPN offered Kradolfer and a group of other noteworthy- thy members of the ‘studio SPN’ a significant number of projects with larger budgets and creative freedom aligned with commitment to a particular style situated somewhere between Portuguese rusticity and the modern spirit, with particular emphasis being placed on the Popular Art Fortnight which travelled to the missions representing Portugal in London (1936) and Geneva (1936), the Portuguese representatives at the Berlin Olympic Games (1936), the International Exhibitions in Paris (1937), New York (1939), and San Francisco (1939), and the Portuguese World Exhibition (1940).

Credit is due to Fred Kradolfer not only for introducing modern graphic languages to Portugal but also for his ability to permanently update and adapt them. His culture and vocation for advertising, the rigour of his planning, and the technical skill with which he mastered the entire design process – from concept, composition, and graphic production to application – and the audacity with which he aimed to become a designer in Portugal, before anyone else, make Fred Kradolfer a major figure in the history of Portuguese design.

From the 1930s onwards, Kradolfer worked intensively with Edições Paulo Guedes, where he illustrated several books by the poet António Botto. He also worked on a less regular basis with other publishing houses, including Alfa, Ática, Bertrand and O Volante.

In the 1930s, Kradolfer made use of a modernist language characterized by geometrized typography and images and strong chromatic contrasts. At the end of the decade, he embarked on longer working relationships with Editorial Inquérito and Editora Portugália. At this stage, his covers oscillated between the graphical synthesis that can be seen in collections of essays published by Inquérito and a more pictorial style featuring naturalist figuration and a smoother chromatic palette.

SOURCE: www.silvadesigners.net/colecao-d/pdf/06fk.pdf

By pedrosimoes7 on 2020-01-05 18:23:58
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