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{articles|100|campaign}{pixabay|100|campaign}Screen Shot 2021-05-22 at 10.13.42 AM
Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 1 –
youtu.be/oHBTnaDgMvY

Martin Delany – To Be More Than Equal 1 Credits 17:19
youtu.be/AJ0Ch2XvlEM

Martin Delany – To Be More than Equal 2, Enthralls West Africa – summer, 1859
youtu.be/AiSi7oDRM0k

Martin Delany To Be More Than Equal 2 Credits 38:59
youtu.be/EqQYMkiKrgk

Martin Delany To Be More Than Equal 3 14:54
youtu.be/UnDvxC0dEcM

Martin Delany To Be More Than Equal 3 Credits 34:19
youtu.be/66yJR6mvWKE

This is a 3-part of a series about Martin Delany, born in 1812 in Charles Town, then Virginia going on to be the first African-American field officer in the U.S. Army, organizer in 1859 of a year long scientific expedition in West Africa, Harvard educated physician, co-editor of The North Start with Frederick Douglass, author of several books including one of the very first important novels by an African-American. It was called "Blake: The Huts of American," the story of a traveling insurrectionist serialized in the Anglo-African magazine in 1858-1860. After Lincoln met him in February, 1865 in the White House, the President immediately sent a memo to his Secretary of War, stating: "Do not fail to have an interview with this most intelligent and extraordinary black man."

With Sonny Luckett as Martin Delany

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu) to encourage fact-based discussion into the foundational issues from which our nation has evolved.

MRD 2 Script Credits TBME.FINAL

Martin Delany Ignites West Africa – summer, 1859

Delany, Martin R. (1861). "OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY." New York, T. Hamilton;
catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001610366

OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY
EXPLORING PARTY
by
Martin R Delany
Published 1861

E-text prepared by Suzanne Shell, Janet Blenkinship,
and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team
(www.pgdp.net)
www.gutenberg.org/files/22118/22118-h/22118-h.htm

Introduction
:00 – Lamplight by Vandaliariver.com over intro images to :39
START VIDEO

:00 – FX birds, seagulls, ocean waves over images 1-7 to :44
:00 – Waterdogs 4 by Cam Millar (cammillar.com) over images 1-7 to :44

1-5, & 7.
fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…

**
5. TITLE: Land Ho!

6. Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia
Contributor Names: Ashmun, J. (Jehudi), Young, J. H. (James Hamilton), Finley, A. (Anthony). Created / Published: Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830.
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/96680499/

7. fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com

***

:45 – syncopation, cheering crowds and singing over images 8-20 to 3:24

8. TITLE: “The arrival of Martin Robison Delany in Liberia is an era in the history of African emigration, an event doubtless that will long be remembered by hundreds of thousands of Africa’s exiled children." Richard Blackett – The Journal of Negro History
Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. 1-25 (25 pages) Published By: The University of Chicago Press p. 15 – as quoted from The Liberian Herald approx. July 12, 1859 – jstor.org

Tall Ship and canoes

**
NARRATOR: (Dr. Momodou Darboe): “The arrival of Martin Robison Delany in Liberia is an era in the history of African emigration, an event doubtless that will long be remembered by hundreds of thousands of Africa’s exiled children. –
Martin R. Delany and Robert Campbell: Black Americans in Search of an African Colony
Richard Blackett – The Journal of Negro History
Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. 1-25 (25 pages)
Published By: The University of Chicago Press
p. 15 – as quoted from The Liberian Herald approx. July 12, 1859
jstor.org
www.jstor.org/stable/2717188?read-now=1&refreqid=exce…

9. TITLE: "Persons from all parts of the country came to Monrovia to see this great man.”
Martin R. Delany and Robert Campbell: Black Americans in Search of an African Colony
Richard Blackett – The Journal of Negro History p. 15 – jstor.org

Man carried by four men

10-13 – drawings of people celebrating in West Africa

14. TITLE: Ridiculed and ignored in America for speaking –
Douglass fighting mob in Indiana
Douglass, Frederick. (1881). "Life and times of Frederick Douglass,
written by himself. His early life as a slave, his escape from bondage, and his complete history to the present time, including his connection with the anti-slavery movement. With an introduction by Mr. George L. Ruffin." Hartford, CT: Park publishing – hathitrust.org
p. 285 – Illustration
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015018652357&vie…

**
Ridiculed and ignored in America for speaking –

15. TITLE: embraced by the thousands here for speaking – how strange.
Image in color of gala event in French influenced West Africa
Crowder, Michael. (1977). “West Africa: An Introduction to Its History.” London: Longman Group, Ltd. p. 110
**
embraced by the thousands here for speaking – how strange.

16. TITLE: MRD: “The regeneration of the African race can only be effected by its own efforts, the efforts of its own self and whatever aid may come from other sources;
and it must, in this venture succeed, as God leads the movement and His hand guides the way.”
*
Delany, Martin R. (1879). "The Origin of Races and Color," Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.
p. 94
books.google.com
books.google.com/books?id=7nJkBGJGtYEC&pg=PA94&lp…
16a. Beautiful African woman with large ear jewelry

17. TITLE: Face thine accusers, scorn the rack and rod and, if thou hast truth to utter,
17a. Discovery of Nat Turner
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division, The New York Public Library. (1930 – 1969). digitalcollections.nypl.org
Discovery of Nat Turner Retrieved from digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-c4f1-a3d9-e040…

18. TITLE: Speak
MRD
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

19.TITLE: and leave the rest to God.
MRD
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

*
17-19
Image of text of poem with these words
aadl.org
aadl.org/node/28449

Be thou like the noble Ancient — Scorn the threat that bids thee fear ; Speak ! — no matter what betide thee ; Let them strike, but make them hear ! Be thou like the first Apostles — Be thou like heroic Paul; If a free thought seek expression, Speak it boldly ! speak it all ! Face thine enemies — accusers; Scorn the prison, rack, or rod ! And, if thou hast Truth to utter. Speak! and leave the rest to God.

Truth and Freedom by William Gallagher in
Coolidge, George, (1861). "Poems of Manhood." Boston, MS: Damrell & Moore
pp. 50-51
books.google.com/books?id=k_EVAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA51&lp…!

20. NO TITLE
River crossing Africa
Crowder, Michael. (1977). “West Africa: An Introduction to Its History.” London: Longman Group, Ltd.
p. 110

***
2:12 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa over images 21-43 to 4:48

Hochschule für Musik FRANZ LISZT Weimar
Sonah Jobarteh – Acoustic Guitar/ Kora/ Vocals
Maurice Brown – Acoustic Guitar
Andi McLean – Electric Bass/ BVs
Mouhamadou Sarr – Djembe/ Congas/ Calabash/ BVs
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

21. TITLE Mandikan music from a griot
22. TITLE: The Kora
Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

23. TITLE: Saturday, July 10th, 1859
Old map of the Coast of West Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas including the colony of Liberia, compiled chiefly from the surveys and observations of the late Rev. J. Ashmun – loc.gov
www.loc.gov/resource/g8882c.lm000002

24. TITLE: Delany wrote: I landed on the beach at Grand Cape Mount, Robertsport, amid the joyous acclamations of the numerous natives who stood along the beautiful shore
Grand Cape Mount
Old map of the Coast of West Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas including the colony of Liberia, compiled chiefly from the surveys and observations of the late Rev. J. Ashmun – loc.gov
www.loc.gov/resource/g8882c.lm000002

25. NO TITLE
Hillside view of Robertsport, Liberia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robertsport#/media/File:Robertsport…
English: Hillside view of Robertsport, Liberia
Date 8 February 2009, 10:31:58
Source www.flickr.com/photos/mjmkeating/3294698319/
Author mjmkeating Attribution
Coordinates: 6°45′N 11°22′W
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robertsport

26. NO TITLE
Mandinko Dancing by Woman
Attribute shaunamullally
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandinka_people#/media/File:Mandink…

**
Delany wrote: I landed on the beach at Grand Cape Mount, Robertsport, amid the joyous acclamations of the numerous natives who stood along the beautiful shore, – Delany, Martin R. (1861). "OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY." New York, T. Hamilton;
catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001610366
p. 16
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&vie…

27. NO TITLE
Hillside view of Robertsport, Liberia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robertsport#/media/File:Robertsport…
English: Hillside view of Robertsport, Liberia
Date 8 February 2009, 10:31:58
Source www.flickr.com/photos/mjmkeating/3294698319/
Author mjmkeating Attribution
Coordinates: 6°45′N 11°22′W
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robertsport

28. NO TITLE
Sketch map of West Africa to show area of Mandingo peoples, languages and influence. Coloring with File:MandingoMap-1906.jpg.
New York Public Library [1], from Liberia by Sir Harry Johnston; with an appendix on the flora of Liberia by Dr. Otto Stapf; 28 coloured illustrations by Sir Harry Johnston, 24 botanical drawings by Miss Matilda Smith
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MandingoMap-1906_with_col…

29. TITLE: Just north is the homeland of Shango, Delany’s grandfather, the Mandinko chief.
Mandingo chief
Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” New York, NY: D. Appleton & Co. frontispiece
gutenberg.org
www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm

**
Just north is the homeland of Shango, Delany’s grandfather, the Mandinko chief.

30. TITLE: Grace Peace Deed Book 6, Page 227 2/13/1811 Jefferson County WV Clerk Courthouse, Charles town, Wv Document Inquiry

31. TITLE: Grandma Grace Peace told the Delany children how Shango was captured and
Sunday morning by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, OH
artsandculture.google.com
artsandculture.google.com/asset/sunday-morning-in-virgini…

**
Grandma Grace Peace told the Delany children how Shango was captured and

32. TITLE: shipped to America
Shipped back in net – The Underground Railroad – The National Park Service – 1998 – Washington, D.C.: Dept of the Interior
p. 21 Musee d’L’Homme; slave ship – Mariners’ Museum, Newport News, Va.
archive.org/details/undergroundrailr00unit/page/21/mode/1up

**
shipped to America.

33. TITLE: A whipper tried to whip Shango in order to make him
Mandinko chief/Whipper
33a. Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” New York, NY: D. Appleton & Co. frontispiece
gutenberg.org
www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm

33b. whipper
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, (Aug., 1855). pp. 289-311. Print.
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine.
p. 289 – Tim Longbow
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090072&vie…
**
A whipper tried to whip Shango in order to

34. TITLE: as humble as a dog
34a. MRD – ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

Delany, Martin R. (1859-1861 serialized). "Blake; or, The huts of America,
a novel." With an introd. by Floyd J. Miller. Boston: Beacon Press.
p. 175

35. TITLE: As spiritless as a kitten
35a. MRD – ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

34a & 35a – MRD – ahec.armywarcollege.edu
SOURCE OF QUOTE
You are mistaken, Mr. Jenkin, it was not impudence nor even forwardness, as he was most delicately sensible of what was due to others, especially superiors; but I and he being raised up from childhood together, he was accustomed to look upon and treat me more as a friend and equal, than a master and superior." "You may thank me, then Mr. Postlewaite, for the change!"

34a & 35a CONTINUED
"Certain it is, sir, that had you not repeatedly called my attention to it, insisting that I must persist in punishment until he was broken, I never should have notcied his conduct." "Do you think he’s completely cured?" He’s completely broken, sir, and as humble as a dog. The last chastisement that Goodman gave completely reduced him, taking out the last remnant of his manhood, so that he’s as spiritless as a kitten!"

Delany, Martin R. (1859-1861 serialized). "Blake; or, The huts of America,
a novel." With an introd. by Floyd J. Miller. Boston: Beacon Press. books.google.com
p. 175
books.google.com/books?id=0ZV2AAAAQBAJ&pg=PT226&l…; but I and hiritless+as+a+kitten&source=bl&ots=r4CD6nSxkD&sig=ACfU3U0rs1KEqL_v-zyKK_afVGRTYNxQVA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjRlsyYm7jxAhWFFlkFHZtDD_sQ6AEwDnoECBUQAw#v=onepage&q=as%20spiritless%20as%20a%20kitten&f=false

34a & 35a CONTINUED
The following is an account written by Delany that he personally observed on his trip in 1839 to Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas: THIS IS A VERY IMPORTANT FACT OF HISTORY BY A CREDITABLE SOURCE WHO IS BLACK. However it is an example of exceeding cruelty and should be read or not read accordingly. Not for children or teens

Shortly there came forward a small black boy about eleven years of age, thin visage, projecting upper teeth, rather ghastly consumptive look. The child trembled with fear as he approached the group. "Now gentlemen," said Garson. "I’m going to show you a sight!" Having in his hand a long whip, the cracking of which he commenced, as a ringmaster in the circus, the child gave him a look never to be forgotten, a look beseeching mercy and compassion. Delany, Martin R. (1859-1861 serialized). "Blake; or, The huts of America,
a novel." With an introd. by Floyd J. Miller. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 67
utc.iath.virginia.edu

34a & 35a CONTINUED
"The child commenced trotting around on his hands and feet like an animal. ‘Now gentlemen, look! He’ll whistle, sing songs, hymns, pray. swear like a trooper, laugh and cry all under the same state of feelings.’ With a peculiar swing of the whip, bringing the lash down upon a certain spot on the exposed skin, the whole person being prepared for the purpose. The boy commenced to whistle almost like a thrush. Another cut changed it to a song, another to a hymn. Then a pitiful prayer . . . when he gave utterance to oaths which would make Christian shudder, after which he laughed outright. . . then from the fullness of his soul he cried: "Oh maussa I’m sick, please stop little, casting up gobs of hemorrhage."

Delany, Martin R. (1859-1861 serialized). "Blake; or, The huts of America,
a novel." With an introd. by Floyd J. Miller. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 67
utc.iath.virginia.edu
utc.iath.virginia.edu/africam/affimrda16t.html

**
as Delany said: “leave him completely broken, as humble as a dog, as spiritless as a kitten.”

36. TITLE: Shango was killed in a fierce fight with the other man.
Mandiken chief
Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” New York, NY: D. Appleton & Co. frontispiece
gutenberg.org
www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm

**
Shango was killed in a fierce fight with the other man.

37. TITLE: Grandma Graci Peace passed on this story to Martin
37a. Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 – Cincinnati Art Museum
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winslow_Homer_-_Sunday_Mo…
37b. Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” New York, NY: D. Appleton & Co. frontispiece
gutenberg.org
www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm

**
Grandma Graci Peace passed on this story to Martin

38. TITLE: But Mandinko tribes always have a griot
Sona Jobarteh & Band Kona from West Africa
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

39. TITLE: or story-rememberer to pass on their history.
Sona Jobarteh & Band Kona from West Africa
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

**
But Mandinko tribes always have a griot or story-rememberer to pass on their history.

40. TITLE: Sona Jobarteh’s hands

41. TITLE: Observing the countryside, Delany wrote that he wondered
41a. Ivory coast countryside
41b. Martin Delany
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

*
The History of Coffee, Part 1: Africa and Arabia
by Judy Fleisher June 04, 2017
scribblerscoffee.com
scribblerscoffee.com/blogs/news/the-history-of-coffee-par…

42. TITLE: why the coffee bean farmers didn’t plant their trees further, say twenty feet, apart.
A coffee farmer, Francois Dadi Serikpa, from Gnamagnoa in Côte d’Ivoire, joined Nestlé’s Nescafé Plan 10 years ago.
itrealms.com.ng
www.itrealms.com.ng/2020/10/nestle-boosting-coffee-produc…

43. NO TITLE
A coffee tree planted in an adequate life zone, allowing for strong, healthy growth. Credit: Alvaro Llobet
Healthy coffee plants grow on hilltops.

**
Observing the countryside, Delany wrote that he wondered why the coffee bean farmers didn’t plant their trees further, say twenty feet, apart.
Report, Niger Valley p. 22
hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&vie…

*
Historical Map of Africa by J. Bartholomew, F.R.G.S. John Bartholomew (1831 – 1893) was a Scottish cartographer, born in Edinburgh.
legacy.lib.utexas.edu
legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/africa_1885.jpg

***

4:09 – FX ocean waves over images 44-45 to 4:23
4:09 – seagulls over images 44-48 to 4:35
4:26 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa over images 47-70 to 6:26
youtube.com
4:34 – PSALM 23 IN YORUBA LANGUAGE over images 49-60 to 5:30
Jul 14, 2017 QUEEN ADUNNI ADE youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8T-R8pH6iE

44. tall ship at sea
fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…

45. TITLE: Wednesday July 13, 1859
sunset beach sea The Africa We Don’t See on Tv Ivory Coast facebook.com
www.facebook.com/theafricawedontseeontv/photos/pcb.150683…

46. TITLE: Arriving at Monrovia
Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia by Ashmun, J. (Jehudi), Young, J. H. (James Hamilton), Finley, A. (Anthony) –
Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830. loc,gov
www.loc.gov/item/96680499/

47. Monrovia streets
Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia by Ashmun, J. (Jehudi), Young, J. H. (James Hamilton), Finley, A. (Anthony) –
Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830.
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/96680499/

*
Liberia and its vicinity.
Monrovia to Cape Palmas
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/resource/g8880.lm000009/?r=0.021,0.371,1.218,…

48. TITLE: Learning the 23rd Psalm
Yoruba-English
48a. Monrovia street map
Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia
Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830.
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/96680499/
48b. Ashmun Street, Monrovia [Liberia]
Ashmun Street with houses and a church, Monrovia, Liberia.
Created / Published 1893. loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/2002695198/

49. TITLE: The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
Ashmun Street with houses and a church, Monrovia, Liberia.
Created / Published 1893. loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/2002695198/

50. TITLE: He maketh me to lie down in green pastures:
Monrovia street – Project Canterbury
Handbooks on the Missions of the Episcopal Church.
Liberia New York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928.
anglicanhistory.org
anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/

**
The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.

51. TITLE: he leadeth me beside the still waters.
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 459
The Great Scholar – hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.

52. TITLE: He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 458
Charley reading book – hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.

53. TITLE: Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil:
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 461
woman at chalkboard hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil:

54. TITLE: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 460
older collegian
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.

55. TITLE: Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 458
Charley reading book
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:

56. TITLE: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 461
Charley reading book
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over. Surely, goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life:

57. TITLE: Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life:
woman at chalkboard
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 460
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

58. TITLE: and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever
young collegian
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 460
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…
**

and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever

*
biblegateway.com
www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm%2023&versi…

www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/33697694756/in/album-721…

all issues access of Harper’s New Monthly
catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008919716?type%5B%5D=all&am…

59. TITLE: At Monrovia’s missionary schools, the classes are being rigidly prosecuted. The missionaries seem to be doing a good work,
Martin Delany
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

**

At Monrovia’s missionary schools, the classes are being rigidly prosecuted

60. TITLE: Forever and ever Amen (in Yoruba)
Folded hands on Bible
depositphotos.com
depositphotos.com/stock-photos/black-man-praying.html

**
The missionaries seem to be doing a good work,

Forever and ever Amen (in Yoruba)

61. TITLE: there being many earnest and faithful laborers among them of both sexes,
Amid group photo
anglicanhistory.org
anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/

62. TITLE: black and white, and many native teachers
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 woman at chalkboard hathitrust.org p. 461
woman at chalkboard
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

there being many earnest and faithful laborers among them of both sexes, black and white, and many native teachers

63. TITLE: They are shrewd, intelligent, and industrious, with high conceptions of the Supreme Being,
The Thankful Poor by Henry Ossawa Tanner – 1894
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Thankful_Poor
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Thankful_Poor
**
They are shrewd, intelligent, and industrious, with high conceptions of the Supreme Being,

64. TITLE: Delany quotes unnamed missionary in Monrovia
Martin Delany
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

65. NO TITLE: Bishop Francis Burns
missionary bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Liberia, 1858-1863.
Photo courtesy of the Liberia Annual Conference
umc.org
ee.umc.org/what-we-believe/ask-the-umc-when-was-the-first…

66. NO TITLE: Rt. Rev John Payne
Project Canterbury
Handbooks on the Missions of the Episcopal Church.
Liberia
New York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928.
anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/

67. TITLE: "as soon as you can convince them that there is a mediator in Jesus Christ to whom you may talk, but cannot see, you make Christians of them.”
Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874
School’s Out Hurrah p. 457
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1u…

**

"As soon as you can convince them that there is a mediator in Jesus Christ to whom you may talk, but cannot see, you make Christians of them.”

68.& 69. TITLE: Many flee violence at home in favor of the peace-loving individuality of being a Christian.

Golah hut
Project Canterbury
Handbooks on the Missions of the Episcopal Church.
Liberia
New York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928.
anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/

69. Potter
Project Canterbury
Handbooks on the Missions of the Episcopal Church.
Liberia
New York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928.
anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/

**
Many flee violence at home in favor of the peace-loving individuality of being a Christian.

***
6:25 – FX mumbling hear hear over images 70-73 to 6:40
6:25 – FX applause over images 70-73 to 6:40

70-73 & 76 – Montage Group of men and one woman from loc.gov collection Liberia
starting extreme uppr left hand corner moving clockwise 1. Edward Morris, 2. James Skivring Smith 3. John Hanson, 4. unidentified woman, 5. Urias A. McGill, 6. James B. Yates, 7. Edward J. Roye, 8. C. H. Hicks, 9. James M. Priest, 10. Alfred Francis Russell, 11. Philip Coker
www.loc.gov/collections/daguerreotypes/?q=American+Coloni…
**
70. TITLE: Leaders met with me
loc.gov collection Liberia

71. TITLE: Several able speeches were made —
loc.gov collection Liberia

72. loc.gov collection Liberia

73. TITLE: The objects of my mission and policy were approved by the missionaries; and
loc.gov collection Liberia

74. TITLE: I shall never forget
Martin Delany
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

75. TITLE: the profound sensation
Martin Delany
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

76. TITLE: produced at that ever-memorable Council, and one of the most happy hours of my life.
loc.gov collection Liberia

77. TITLE: and one of the most happy hours of my life.
Martin Delany
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

78. TITLE: When the honored old judge and sage,
[John Hanson, Liberian senator, wearing glasses, seated at desk]
By Washington, Augustus, photographer, published [between 1856 and 1858] – loc.gov
www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3g06824/

79. TITLE: sanctioning my adventure,
loc.gov collection Liberia

80. TITLE: declared that, rather than it should fail,
loc.gov collection Liberia

81. TITLE: he would join it himself,
loc.gov collection Liberia

82. TITLE: and with emotion rose to his feet;
82a. [John Hanson, Liberian senator, wearing glasses, seated at desk]
By Washington, Augustus, photographer, published [between 1856 and 1858] – loc.gov
www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3g06824/
82b. Martin Delany, c. 1847. Called the father of Black Nationalism, this rare image captures Delany, already an abolitionist, writer, publisher, and journalist at this point in his life. Courtesy of Floyd Thomas.
heinzhistorycenter.org
www.heinzhistorycenter.org/blog/collection-spotlight/rare…

83. TITLE: the effect was inexpressible,
loc.gov collection Liberia

84. TITLE: each person being as motionless as a statue.
loc.gov collection Liberia

85. TITLE: With these gentlemen of Liberia,
loc.gov collection Liberia

86. TITLE: I can make common cause,
loc.gov collection Liberia

87. TITLE: a noble band of brothers.
loc.gov collection Liberia

*

The fundamental principle of every nation is self-reliance, with the ability to create their own ways and means: without this, there is no capacity for self-government . In this short review of public affairs, it is done neither to disparage nor under – rate the gentlemen of Liberia with whom, from the acquaintance I have made with them in the great stride for black nationality, I can make common cause, and hesitate not to regard them, in unison with ourselves, a noble band of brothers.
p. 24
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&vie…
Delany, Martin R. (1861). "OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY." New York, T. Hamilton;

88. PAN AFRICAN FLAG
Pan-African Culture Club (facebook)
www.facebook.com/pacc.fdu/

**
The fundamental principle of every nation is self-reliance, with the ability to create their own ways and means: without this, there is no capacity for self-government

*
A history of the British cotton industry by Claire Hopley
britishheritage.com
britishheritage.com/history/history-british-cotton-industry

***
7:36 – Family Bonds by Cam Millar over image 89-95 to 8:49

89. Asoke linen (background)
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

89a. TITLE: War was fast
89b. TITLE: on its way
89c. TITLE: in the United States.
89d. TITLE: King Cotton in the Slave South
89e. TITLE: could be defeated.
89f. TITLE: first with a blockade
89g. TITLE: by warships
89h. TITLE: set up by England and the United States,
89i. TITLE: and secondly
89j. TITLE: if cotton farmers in Egba in West Africa,
89k. TITLE: united and worked hard,
89l. TITLE: they could as free men supply England’s voracious cotton mills,
89m. TITLE: where so much of the world’s linen was made.
89n. TITLE: A new day would be born.
89o. TITLE: And our brothers in America would come to re-settle,
89p. TITLE: not in Liberia, the brainchild of the white slavers
89q. TITLE: of the American Colonization Society,

89r. TITLE: such as Bushrod Washington
Reversed image of painting of Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington (1762–1829) in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Date 1828
Source npg.si.edu/object/npg_NPG.2017.80
Author Chester Harding, 1 Sep 1792 – 10 Apr 1866
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BushrodWashington.jpg
**
such as Bushrod Washington

**
89s. TITLE: but instead in Egba

90. TITLE: under the laws of Egba chieftains, joining the cotton farmers,
Sagbua Okukenu became the first Alake of Egbaland, ruling between August 8, 1854 to August 31, 1862.[3] Prior to the appointment of the Sagbua Okukenu in 1846, Shomoye was installed as regent for one year, between 1845 and 1846, and following the demise of Oba Okukenu in 1862
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alake_of_Egbaland_(title)

**
under the laws of Egba chieftains, joining the cotton farmers,

91. TITLE: becoming then the world capital of
Rotating Blue Marble NASA Observatory
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=laiVuCmEjlg

**

92. TITLE: the Free Kingdom of Cotton
West Africa
The Blue Marble – Next Generation shows incredible detail of the Earth.
nasa.gov
www.nasa.gov/images/content/136038main_bm_swath.jpg

93. cotton in Nigeria
wealthresult.com
www.wealthresult.com/agriculture/lucrative-cotton-farming….

94. Rotating Blue Marble NASA Observatory
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=laiVuCmEjlg

*
National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox
The Making of African American Identity: Vol. I, 1500-1865
Robert Campbell
A Pilgrimage to My Motherland
An Account of a Journey among the Egbas
and Yorubas of Central Africa in 1859-60
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?st=gallery

1861, EXCERPTS
nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai/freedom/text5/campb…

95. TITLE: Jamaican-born, Robert Campbell, a partner with Delany in this enterprise, wrote:
95a. Kente linen
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…
95b. Robert Campbell
Image 9 of A pilgrimage to my motherland. An account of a journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60.
www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?sp=9

***

8:49 – Olatunji over images 96-104 to 9:32
Babatunde Olatunji – Drums of Passion Live ’85 Archives World Music
•Dec 10, 2018
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=WvWzAgMABx0

96. Nigerian drummers
Drummer Men, A Yoruba Culture from Nigeria is a painting by Chioma Kanu fineartamerica.com
fineartamerica.com/featured/drummer-men-a-yoruba-culture-…

97. There is certainly no more industrious people anywhere,
98. and I challenge all the world besides to produce a people more so,
99. or capable of as much endurance.
100. Those who believe, among other foolish things,
101. that the Negro is accustomed lazily to spend his time basking in the sunshine,
102. like black-snakes or alligators,

103. TITLE: should go and see the people they malign.

SOURCE: 97-103 Robert. (1861). "A pilgrimage to my motherland. An account of a journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60." New York, T. Hamilton. hathitrust.org p. 143
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003508192&vie…
p. 143
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003508192&vie…
103a. Robert Campbell
Image 9 of A pilgrimage to my motherland. An account of a journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60.
www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?sp=9
103b. Kente linen
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

***

9:26 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa over images 104-117 to 10:15

Hochschule für Musik FRANZ LISZT Weimar
Sona Jobarteh – Acoustic Guitar/ Kora/ Vocals
Maurice Brown – Acoustic Guitar
Andi McLean – Electric Bass/ BVs
Mouhamadou Sarr – Djembe/ Congas/ Calabash/ BVs
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

104. Campbell then overlay
104a. Robert Campbell
Image 9 of "A pilgrimage to my motherland. An account of a journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60."
www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?sp=9
104b. Kente linen
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

105. TITLE The cotton plant abounds throughout the entire country,
mother in cotton field, close-up cotton
Nigeria: As CBN Targets 300,000 Cotton Farmers
kohantextilejournal.com
kohantextilejournal.com/nigeria-as-cbn-targets-300000-cot…

106-118 Linens
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

**
106. TITLE: ADINKRA – the natives cultivating it for the manufacture

107. TITLE: ADIRE – of cloths for their own consumption.

108. TITLE – BATIK

109. TITLE EWE – Its exportation is, therefore, capable

110. TITLE: KHASA of indefinite extension.

111. TITLE: KENTE

112. TITLE: KORHOGO

113. TITLE: KUBA

114. TITLE: MANJAKA

115. TITLE: BROCADE

116. TITLE: AFRICAN TIE-DYED

117. TITLE: AFRICAN PRINTS

118. Kente fabric/cotton
118a. youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…
118b. cotton
kohantextilejournal.com
kohantextilejournal.com/nigeria-as-cbn-targets-300000-cot…

NOT USED
In the seed
it is purchased from the natives at something less than two cents per pound. It is then ginned and pressed
by the traders and shipped to Liverpool, where it realizes better prices than New-Orleans cotton.

The gins now in use by the natives affect injuriously the fiber, so as to depreciate it at least two cents per pound.
Properly cleaned, it would bring far more than New-Orleans cotton, and even as it is, the value is about
four cents more than the East-India product.

The plant in Africa being perennial, the expense and trouble
of replanting every year, as in this country, is avoided. There are flowers and ripe cotton on the plants at
all seasons of the year, although there is a time when the yield is greatest. Free laborers for its cultivation
can be employed each for about one half the interest of the cost of a slave at the South per annum, and
land at present can be procured for nothing. These are advantages not to be despised. . . . Robert Campbell
END NOT USED

**

***

10:15 – Rule Britannia by U. S. Army Strings over images 119-120 to – 10:30
Wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule,_Britannia!

119. Royal seal over Kente fabric
119a. Royal_Coat_of_Arms_of_the_United_Kingdom
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Royal_Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Unit…(HM_Government).svg
119b. Kente fabric
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

**

England’s presence in Yoruba was usually strong and stabilizing

120. TITLE: BUT
Kente fabric
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

**

just as Delany and his team were heading for Abeokuta,

121. TITLE: he read in the August 13th issue of the West African Herald:
The West African Herald masthead
the first African-owned newspaper in West Africa, in 1858. It was circulated at first to only about 300 subscribers – 2/3 of them Africans – and endured for sixteen years, stimulating a proliferation of African-owned newspapers later in the 19th century.
pbagalleries.com
www.pbagalleries.com/view-auctions/catalog/id/138/lot/955…
West African Herald
Oldest black-owned newspaper in Africa, The West African Herald, No 64, April 2, 1860
blackpast.org
www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/newspapers-magaz…

**

he read in the August 13th issue of the West African Herald:

***

10:35 – Alice Bort, Laura First, Ardyth Gilbertson over images 121-122 to 10:45
10:47 – KODO over images 123-135 to 11:47 – KODO World Tour 51:30-51:56 – youtube.com
12:05 – Shana Aisenberg (shanasongs.com) banjo over images 136-137 to 12:36

121. NO TITLE tapestry depicting several kings of Dahomey and their regnal years
IvanaMadzarevic – Own work
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_Dahomey

122. NO TITLE (Dahomey tapestry)
tapestry depicting several kings of Dahomey and their regnal years
IvanaMadzarevic – Own work
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_Dahomey

123. TITLE: King Dahomey is about to make the great Custom in honor of the late King Ghezo.
Glele/Ghezo
123a. tapestry depicting several kings of Dahomey and their regnal years
IvanaMadzarevic – Own work
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_Dahomey
123b. Français: Le roi Ghézo et le prince royal Bâhadou.
English: King Ghezo and the Royal Prince Badohou.
Date 1 January 1863
Source Le Tour du monde, volume 7 [1]
Author
Valentin Foulquier (1822–1896)
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Le_Tour_du_monde-07-p085.jpg

**
King Dahomey is about to make the great Custom in honor of the late King Ghezo.

**

124. TITLE: Determined to surpass all formal monarchs

Victims for sacrifice – From The history of Dahomy, an inland Kingdom of Africa 1793 – New York Public Library
Author Archibad Dalzel
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dahomey#/media/File:Victims_for_sac…

**

a great pit has been dug which is to contain human blood enough to float a canoe.

125. TITLE: a great pit has been dug which is to contain human blood enough to float a canoe. Two thousand persons will be sacrificed on this occasion.
newspaper clipping The Constitution Cork Advertiser Friday November 2, 1860
bahamianology.com
bahamianology.com/800-slaves-sacrificed-in-tribute-on-the…

**

Two thousand persons will be sacrificed on this occasion.

126. TITLE: The king has sent his army to make some excursions at the expense of some weaker tribes.
people taken as slaves
bahamianology.com
bahamianology.com/800-slaves-sacrificed-in-tribute-on-the…

**

The king has sent his army to make some excursions at the expense of some weaker tribes.

127. TITLE: The younger people will be sold into slavery.
"Captured Africans Liberated from a Slaving Vessel, East Africa, 1884 [Image]," in Children and Youth in History, Item #149, chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/items/show/149 (accessed May 26, 2021). Annotated by Colleen A. Vasconcellos

128. TITLE The older persons will be killed
Portrait of an Old Man by Gerard Bhengu
artnet.com
www.artnet.com/artists/gerard-bhengu/portrait-of-an-old-m…

129. TITLE: Whole villages are taken
128a.Portrait of an Old Man by Gerard Bhengu
artnet.com
128b. Captured Africans Liberated from a Slaving Vessel, East Africa, 1884
128c. Martin Delany
ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

130. TITLE: For Dahomey’s 5,000 celibate, enslaved, machine-like Amazonian warriors, Abeokuta was an object of their frenzied hatred, because Abeokuta defeated them in a war and even captured a general
Forbes, Frederick E. (1851), "Dahomey and the Dahomans." Vol. 1 London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans,
library.si.edu
library.si.edu/digital-library/book/dahomeydahomansb00forb
Amazon facing p. 23
archive.org
archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/n41/mode/…

**
For Dahomey’s 5,000 celibate enslaved machine-like Amazonian warriors. Abeokuta was an object of their frenzied hatred, because Abeokuta defeated them in a war and even captured a general

131. TITLE: and made off with the sacred umbrella of the late King Gezo (Ghezo).

Ghezo, King of Dahomey
Date 1851
Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1]
Author Forbes, Frederick E.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghezo

**
and made off with the sacred umbrella of the late King Gezo.

132. ornaments skulls NO TITLE
ornaments and skulls
Ghezo, King of Dahomey
Date 1851
Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1]
Author Forbes, Frederick E.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghezo

facing p. 82 ornaments and skulls
archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/n370/mode…

133. human sacrifice NO TITLE
Ghezo, King of Dahomey
Date 1851
Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1]
Author Forbes, Frederick E.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghezo
p. 81 the human sacrifices
archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/80/mode/2…

134. TITLE: King Ghezo died, some believed, because he defied a prophecy that if he invaded Abbeokuta – a "safe city against slavers" – he would pay the price.

King Ghezo montage
134a. King Ghezo
bahamianology.com
bahamianology.com/800-slaves-sacrificed-in-tribute-on-the…
134b. ornaments and skulls
Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1]
Author Forbes, Frederick E.
facing p. 82 ornaments and skulls
archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/n370/mode…

**
King Ghezo died, some believed, because he defied a prophecy
that if he invaded Abbeokuta – a "safe city against slavers"

**
he would pay the price.

135. TITLE: He tried. He was defeated. He died in 1858
Ghezo, King of Dahomey
Date 1851
Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1]
Author Forbes, Frederick E.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghezo

He tried. He was defeated. He died in 1858

*
THE POLITICS OF COMMERCIAL TRANSITION:
FACTIONAL CONFLICT IN DAHOMEY IN THE

CONTEXT OF THE ENDING OF THE ATLANTIC
SLAVE TRADE by Robin Law
University of Stirling York University, Ontario*
p. 227
Forbes, Frederick E. (1851). "Dahomey and the Dahomans." London: Longman, Brown, Green,and Longmans.
library.si.edu/digital-library/book/dahomeydahomansb00forb
Forbes Dahomey i, p. 20

dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/280/1/politics-of-commer…

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghezo#cite_note-Law-1997-6

***

12:44 – banjo by Shana Aisenberg images 136-137 to 13:14

136. TITLE: “Farewell, farewell my loving friends, farewell. . .”
(Same as 82b) Martin Delany, c. 1847. Called the father of Black Nationalism, this rare image captures Delany, already an abolitionist, writer, publisher, and journalist at this point in his life. Courtesy of Floyd Thomas.
heinzhistorycenter.org

137. TITLE: The jasmine smells of Africa are tonight less fragrant than my scented memory of soft honey-suckled summer’s night breezes in Virginia long ago, and awaking to the mockingbird.
The Banjo Player by William Sidney Mount 1856 – The Long Island Museum of American art, History and Carriages, Stony Brook, United States
artsandculture.google.com
artsandculture.google.com/asset/the-banjo-player-mount-wi…

**
“Farewell, farewell my loving friends, farewell. . .”

**
The jasmine smells of Africa are tonight less fragrant than my scented memory of soft honey-suckled summer’s night breezes in Virginia long ago, and awaking to the mockingbird.

END PART 2 TO BLACK

END PART 2

***
ADD Alice Bort, Ardyth Gilbertson, Laura First over images —

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glele

Français: Le roi Ghézo et le prince royal Bâhadou.
English: King Ghezo and the Royal Prince Badohou.
Date 1 January 1863
Source Le Tour du monde, volume 7 [1]
Author
Valentin Foulquier (1822–1896)
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Le_Tour_du_monde-07-p085.jpg

the son of the recently deceased King Ghezo

END PART 2

Jamaican-born, Robert Campbell, a partner with Delany in this enterprise, wrote:
9:28 – Olatunji over images 95-101 to 10:04

***

95. There is certainly no more industrious people anywhere,
96. and I challenge all the world besides to produce a people more so,
97. or capable of as much endurance.
98. Those who believe, among other foolish things,
99. that the Negro is accustomed lazily to spend his time basking in the sunshine,
100. like black-snakes or alligators,

101. TITLE: should go and see the people they malign.
101a. Robert Campbell
Image 9 of A pilgrimage to my motherland. An account of a journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60.
www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?sp=9
101b. Kente linen
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

mother in cotton field, close-up cotton
Nigeria: As CBN Targets 300,000 Cotton Farmers
kohantextilejournal.com
kohantextilejournal.com/nigeria-as-cbn-targets-300000-cot…

Woman picking cotton

**
The plant abounds throughout the entire country,

Linens
youramba.com
youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-…

**
the natives cultivating it for the manufacture of cloths for their own consumption.

Cotton/kente fabric

**
Its exportation is, therefore, capable of indefinite extension.

NOT USED
In the seed
it is purchased from the natives at som
By Jim Surkamp on 2021-08-07 17:47:30
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